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Given our understanding of both black holes and white holes, what would be the outcome if they were both to suddenly collide?
A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible is called the event horizon.
In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it.
In quantum mechanics, the black hole emits Hawking radiation and so can come to thermal equilibrium with a gas of radiation. Because a thermal-equilibrium state is time-reversal-invariant, Stephen Hawking argued that the time reverse of a black hole in thermal equilibrium is again a black hole in thermal equilibrium. This implies that black holes and white holes are the same object
The excerpt above was an argument made by Stephen Hawking, explaining that a white hole and a black hole are essentially the same object. With this in mind, we can assume that the collision will be between two black holes. The result will then be the radius of the black hole added to the radius of the white hole.
What Happens When Supermassive Black Holes Collide?
As galaxies merge together, you might be wondering what happens with the supermassive black holes that lurk at their centres. Just imagine the forces unleashed as two black holes with hundreds of millions of times the mass of the Sun come together. The answer will surprise you. Fortunately, it’s an event that we should be able to detect from here on Earth, if we know what we’re looking for.
Most, if not all, galaxies in the Universe seem to contain supermassive blackholes. Some of the biggest can contain hundreds of millions, or even billions of times the mass of our own Sun. And the environments around them can only be called “extreme”. Researchers think that many could be spinning at the maximum rates predicted by Einstein’s theories of relativity – a significant fraction of the speed of light.
As two galaxies merge, their supermassive black holes have to eventually interact. Either through a direct collision, or by spiraling inward until they eventually merge as well.
And that’s when things get interesting.
According to simulations made by G.A. Shields from the University of Texas, Austin, and E.W. Bonning, from Yale University, the result is often a powerful recoil. Instead of coming together nicely, the forces are so extreme that one black holes is kicked away at a tremendous velocity.
The maximum kick happens with the two black holes are spinning in opposite directions, but they’re on the same orbital plane – imagine two spinning tops coming together. In a fraction of a second, one black hole is given enough of a kick to send it right out of the newly merged galaxy, never to return.
As one black hole is given a kick, the other receives a tremendous amount of energy, injected into the disk of gas and dust surrounding it. The accretion disk will blaze with a soft X-ray flare that should last thousands of years.
So even though mergers between supermassive black holes are extremely rare events, the afterglow lasts long enough that we should be able to detect a large number out there in space right now. The researchers estimate that there could be as many as 100 of these recent recoil events happening within 5 billion light-years of the Earth.
Their recently updated journal article, entitled Powerful Flares from Recoiling Black Holes in Quasars will be published in an upcoming issue of the Astrophysics Journal.
A black hole is a body in space which is so large and so dense that nothing, except for Chuck Norris, can escape its gravitational pull. This body would have to be 500 times larger than the sun at the same density, or if the sun was compressed to about three meters in diameter. In theory, the gravity around either body would be so great that it would pull objects to itself at a speed greater than light, and according to Einstein, the universe would turn into a place of fun. Luckily, this will never happen because as long as Republicans are here, they won't let us have any fun. They are also a surefire place to experience Zen, Nirvana and loss of appetite.
Black holes may also occur when a Democrat hears another Democrat profess a belief in Christianity. Or George Bush made another mistake.
It is a common misconception that the black holes gravity stretches out into spaghetti, however in reality it stretches you out into noodles, the Gods are from Asia not Italy.
What Would Happen If You Had A Black Hole The Size Of A Nickel? (Astronomy)
What would happen to you if a black hole the size of a coin suddenly appeared near you? Short answer, “You’ll die.” Long answer. It depends, if is it a black hole with a mass of a coin or is it as wide as a coin?
Suppose a US nickel with the mass of about 5 grams magically collapsed into a black hole. This black hole would have a radius of 10^ -30 meters. By comparison, a hydrogen atom is about 10^ -11 m. So, the black hole compared to an atom is as small as an atom compared to the sun. Unimaginably small!
And a small black hole would also have an unimaginably short lifetime to decay by hawking radiation. It would radiate away what little mass it has in 10^ -23 seconds. Its 5 grams of mass will be converted to 450 Terajoules of energy which will lead to an explosion roughly 3 times bigger than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined. In this case, you die, you also lose the coin.
If a black hole had a diameter of a common coin then it would be considerably more massive. In fact, the black hole with the diameter of a nickel would be slightly more massive than the earth. It would have a surface gravity billion billion times greater than our planet currently does.
Its tidal forces on you would be so strong that they’d rip your individual cells apart. The black hole would consume you before you even realized whats happening. Although the laws of gravity are still the same, the phenomenon of gravity that you’d experience would be very different around such dense objects.
The range of gravitational attraction extends over the entire observable universe, with gravity getting weaker and farther away you are from something. On earth right now, your head and toes are approximately the same distance from the center of our planet. But if you stood on a nickel sized black hole, your feet would be 100 of times closer to the center and the gravitational force would be 10 of 1000s of times as large as the force on your head and rip you into a billion pieces.
But the black hole wouldn’t stop with just you. The black hole is now a dominant gravitational piece of Earth-Moon-Black hole-Of-Death System. You might think that the black hole would sink towards the center of the planet and consume it from the inside out. In fact, the earth also moves up onto the black hole and begins to bob around, as if it were orbiting the black hole, all while having swathes of mass eaten with each pass, which is much more creepy.
As the earth eaten up from the inside, it collapses into a scattered disk of hot rock, surrounding the black hole in a tight orbit. The black hole slowly doubles its mass by the time its done feeding.
The moon orbit is now highly elliptical. The effects on the solar system are also awesome in the biblical sense of awesome which means terrifying.
Tidal forces from the black hole would probably disrupt to near-earth asteroids, maybe even parts of the asteroid belt, sending rocks careening through the solar system. Bombardments and impacts may become common place for the next few million years.
The planets are slightly perturbed but stay approximately in the same orbit. The black hole which we use to call earth will now continue on orbiting orbiting the sun in the earth’s place. In this case you also die..
What Would Happen If A Black Hole Fall In A Wormhole? (Astronomy / Science And Technology)
A recent study published in the Astrophysical Journal says that, we might be able to detect black holes falling into wormholes using ripples in spacetime known as gravitational waves, but only if wormholes actually exist and such a scenario ever happened.
Current ground-based gravitational wave detectors are tuned to capture the collision of compact objects such as stellar origin black holes and neutron stars over 20 such events have been published to date.. However, more exotic objects may theoretically exist, such as wormholes, the collisions of which should also produce gravitational signals that scientists could detect.
By assuming that wormholes exists, scientists investigated the gravitational signals generated when a black hole orbits a wormhole. They also explored what might happen when the black hole enters one point of the wormhole and exits out the others in space-time, and then — assuming the black hole and wormhole are gravitationally bound to one another — falls back into the wormhole and emerges out the other side.
In computer models, the researchers analyzed the interactions between a black hole five times the mass of the sun and a stable traversable wormhole 200 times the mass of the sun with a throat 60 times wider than the black hole. The models suggested that gravitational signals unlike any seen up to now would occur when the black hole journeyed into and out of the wormhole.
When two black holes spiral closer to one another, their orbital speeds increase, much like spinning figure skaters who draw their arms closer to their bodies. In turn, the frequency of the gravitational waves rises. The sound these gravitational waves would produce is a chirp, much like when one increases the pitch rapidly on a slide whistle, since any increase in frequency corresponds to an increase in pitch.
If one watched a black hole spiral into a wormhole, one would see a chirp much like two black holes meeting, but the gravitational signal from the black hole would quickly fade as it radiated most of its gravitational waves on the other side of the wormhole.
If one watched a black hole emerge from a wormhole, one would see an “anti-chirp.” Specifically, the frequency of gravitational waves from the black hole would decrease as it moved farther away from the wormhole.
As the black hole keeps journeying in and out each side of the wormhole, it would generate a cycle of chirps and anti-chirps. The length of time between each chirp and anti-chirp would shrink over time until the black hole got stuck in the throat of the wormhole. This novel waveform signature may be useful in searches for wormholes in future gravitational wave data or used to constrain possible wormhole geometries in Universe.
In this scenario, eventually the black hole would stop falling in and out of the wormhole and settle near its throat. The consequences of such a finale depend on the completely speculative properties of the exotic matter found in the wormhole’s throat. One possibility is that the black hole has effectively increased the mass of the wormhole and the wormhole may not possess enough exotic matter to keep stable. Maybe the resulting disruption in space-time causes the black hole to convert its mass to energy in the form of an extraordinary amount of gravitational waves.
As long as a wormhole has a greater mass than any black hole it encounters, it should remain stable. If a wormhole encounters a larger black hole, the black hole may disrupt the wormhole’s exotic matter enough to destabilize the wormhole, causing it to collapse and likely form a new black hole.
References: James B. Dent, William E. Gabella, Kelly Holley-Bockelmann, Thomas W. Kephart, “The Sound of Clearing the Throat: Gravitational Waves from a Black Hole Orbiting in a Wormhole Geometry”, Physical Review Letters, pp. 1-6, 2020..
What would happen if a white hole collided with a black hole?
I just learned about whiteholes from wikipedia (relevant: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_hole). I understand that white holes are highly theoretical, if not entirely impossible in our universe. My understanding is that they are just mathematical phenomena. Regardless, it seems interesting to think about what would happen if these two opposite entities would collided. Would they dissappear, explode, or create something new?
Classical white holes (from eternal/extended GR solutions) are almost certainty nonphysical. They are able to spit out objects to reduce the entropy of the universe.
You can never approach a classical white hole as they exist in the past. Thus, colliding anything with one is impossible, the question itself doesn't make sense.
If Hawking radiation is true, then Hawking pointed out that white holes (interpreted as time reversed black holes) and black holes are actually the same object through an argument involving heat baths. So they may be relevant in the semi-classical approach.
If the above bullet holds, then the collision looks like two black holes colliding, you get a bigger black hole and a bunch of emitted gravitational waves.
White Holes and Wormholes
So, if a black hole is sucking in all of this information and a white hole is spitting it out somewhere, mustn’t there be something connecting the two? A wormhole perhaps? Maybe.
The aforementioned Schwarzchild geometry implies that a wormhole would connect a black hole and white hole with two distinct universes connected at their horizons, also known as an Einstein-Rosen bridge.
Unforunately, these wormholes would be highly unstable if they were even possible. It would also be impossible, with physics as we know it, for one to pass through a wormhole into another universe (also theoretical) due to a number of pesky things like being spaghettified when passing through a black hole’s event horizon before being compressed at the singularity. Though you might at least get to see some distorted light from the parallel universe on the other side.
But since this is mostly theoretical, there are always theoretical solutions, like using exotic matter to stabilize a wormhole. Exotic matter has negative mass and positive surface pressure. This would keep the throat of the wormhole stable, while also preventing it from collapsing. This could hypothetically allow for travelers to pass through.
Will we ever figure out if wormholes exist and whether they can be used for time travel or inter-dimensional travel? Or have we already?
Particle physicist Álvaro Díez created the tool, which is hosted on the calculator database project Omni Calculator. Based on his calculations, a black hole swallowing the Earth would release some 55 quintillion times the planet’s annual energy consumption.
But even that destructive event would be a light snack for a supermassive black hole — its event horizon would only expand by a hundredth of a trillionth of a percent, per the calculator.
The main flaw with the calculator? The artistic rendering of a black hole obliterating the Earth that pops up next to the results doesn’t change to match any increasingly goofy collisions.
What happens when nerve cells stop working?
A stroke is just one example of a condition when communication between nerve cells breaks down. Micro-failures in brain functioning also occur in conditions such as depression and dementia. In most cases, the lost capacity will return after a while. However, consequential damage will often remain so that the functional capability can only be restored through lengthy treatment -- if at all. For this reason, researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have been investigating what happens during such breakdown phases and looking at possible ways of preventing damage and speeding up the healing processes. Their findings have been recently published in the eminent journal Scientific Reports.
The research team headed by Jana Wrosch of FAU's Chair of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy found that significant alterations occurred in neural cells while the communication pathways were blocked. Neuron networks reconnect during such periods of inactivity and become hypersensitive. If we imagine that normal communication pathways are motorways, when they are blocked a form of traffic chaos occurs in the brain whereby information is re-routed in disorganised form along what can be called side streets and minor routes. Additional synapses are generated everywhere and begin operating. When the signal is reinstated, the previously coordinated information routes no longer exist and, as in the case of a child, the appropriate functions need to be learned from scratch. Since they are receiving no normal signals during the phase of brain malfunction, the nerve cells also become more sensitive in an attempt to find the missing input. Once the signals return, this means they may overreact.
Nerve cells flicker when stained
Visualising the microscopically minute connections between the nerve cells is a major technical challenge. The conventional microscopic techniques currently available, such as electron microscopy, always require preliminary treatment of the nerve cells that are to undergo examination. However, this causes the nerve cells to die, so that the alterations that occur in the cells cannot be observed. To get round this problem, Wrosch and her team have developed a high-speed microscopy process along with special statistical computer software that make it possible to visualise the communication networks of living neurons. First, a video of the cells is made whereby an image is taken every 36 milliseconds. A special dye is used to stain the cells to ensure that the individual cells flicker whenever they receive a signal. Subsequently, the software recognises these cells on the video images and detects the information pathways by which the signals are transmitted from cell to cell.
The nerve cells are then exposed to the pufferfish poison tetrodotoxin to simulate the blocking of communication channels that occurs in disorders. After inducing communication breakdown phases of varying lengths, the researchers remove the toxin from the cells and determine how the nerve cell networks have changed during exposure. 'Thanks to this concept, we have been finally able to discover what happens when communication is blocked,' explains Wrosch. 'Now we can try to develop medications that will help prevent these damaging changes.' In future projects, the research team plans to examine the exact mode of action of anti-depressants on nerve cell networks and intends to find new approaches to creating more effective drugs.
Physicist Builds a Calculator to Show What Would Happen if Earth Collided With a Black Hole
A new online tool calculates just how much cosmic destruction a run-in between the Earth and a black hole would cause.
The aptly-named Black Hole Collision Calculator determines how much a black hole would expand and the amount of energy it would release if it absorbed the Earth — or any other object, since the calculator is totally customizable, Space.com reports.
Particle physicist Álvaro Díez created the tool, which is hosted on the calculator database project Omni Calculator.
Based on his calculations, a black hole swallowing the Earth would release some 55 quintillion times the planet's annual energy consumption.
But even that destructive event would be a light snack for a supermassive black hole — its event horizon would only expand by a hundredth of a trillionth of a percent, per the calculator.
The main flaw with the calculator?
The artistic rendering of a black hole obliterating the Earth that pops up next to the results doesn't change to match any increasingly goofy collisions.
This article was originally published by Futurism. Read the original article.